The bell (69 photos): description of the campaign "bride and groom"
The bell flower is a representative of the Campanula family, which has almost 300 subspecies.
Important! There are other flowers like bells, famous names: Adenophora, Aquilegia, Brugmansia, Galanthus, Hyacinthoides and other cultures.
Origin and appearance of bells
In nature, culture can be found in temperate climates - in Asian, Siberian, Caucasian, European territories and in North America. Perennial types are considered to be common, annuals and biennials are occasionally found. The buds look like miniature bells, the stems are covered with narrow foliage.
On each shoot there are flowers, with white, blue, blue or purple color. In inflorescences panicle or racemose form. After the flowering period ends, small seed bolls are formed.
Important! The types of bells include low and tall, from 3-4 cm to 1 m. Flowering of the culture continues throughout the summer season.
What does a bell look like?
The botanical description indicates what the bell looks like and what color the petals have:
- The foliage on the shoots is arranged in order.
- The inflorescences have a bell shape.
- The color of the petals depends on the plant variety; there are subspecies of snow-white, bluish, yellowish, lilac, bluish, pinkish tones.
- In most species, the flowers are collected in a brush, in some cases on the shoot there may be one bud of outstanding size.
Important! The seeds of the plant have a different size, which depends on the variety of the individual.
Field bell - description
To grassy subspecies, with a funnel-shaped form of inflorescences (sometimes paniculate and racemose variation can be found), include a field bell. The shoots of the plant are simple, creeping or creeping type, there are branches. The foliage is elongated.
Important! The buds open in May and July; some species adorn the flower bed until September.
Forest bells are often painted in a bluish tint. Less common are options with pinkish, snow-white or lilac petals. In nature, they can be found in temperate climates, growing on a personal plot requires creating the most suitable conditions for normal growth and development.
Important! The plant can make assumptions about future weather - the appearance of dewdrops on foliage predicts rain or thunderstorm.
In the people it can be called musical - because of the legend about the sounds that it makes on the night of Ivan Kupala.
Where does the bell flower grow?
The area where the bluebells grow is vast. Field plants can be found in meadows, clearings and forest edges, along river banks and in ravines. The bells are suitable for temperate climates, and they grow almost everywhere in Europe and Central Asia. Feel good in the mountains and foothills of the Caucasus, on the Mediterranean coast.
The bell of a home flower decorates flowerbeds and adjoining areas throughout Eurasia. It looks good in cultural plantings of a variety of forms, from border plantings, to mixborders, rockeries and stone gardens. It is not picky about care and harmonizes well with other wildflowers. It can be planted as a background plant for crops with more vivid decorative characteristics.
Types and varieties of garden perennial bells
The garden bell is characterized by a large number of subspecies, differing in the size of the shoots, the color of the petals, and the volume of buds.
Adenophora is a close relative of the bell, which can be easily guessed by its popular name - the bells.
This herbaceous perennial is unpretentious, can grow both in the sun and in partial shade, is undemanding to the type of soil, does not require shelter for the winter. Keep in mind that the adenophore needs good soil drainage and does not grow well on acidified soils.
The bell blossoms most of the summer. Easily propagated by seeds. In this case, winter sowing is preferable. If you did not manage to sow bells in late autumn and plan to carry out sowing in spring, it is advisable to stratify them for a month (keep them in the refrigerator).
Behind a beautiful name, aquilegia hides a well-known catchment. He is an eagles, doves, boots - you can’t count the popular names. English-speaking gardeners even call him "grandmother's hat."
About a hundred species of aquilegia are known, but hybrids are usually grown in gardens. Almost all watersheds feel great in the middle zone and even winter in the taiga zone without shelter. In addition, they prefer partial shade. What is not an ideal plant for the garden?
Plant height can be different depending on the species: for example, from 30-40 cm for Biedermeier aquilegia and up to 120 cm for MacCana hybrids.
Aquilegia blooms in June-August, depending on the variety. Sowing is carried out in the open ground in autumn or through seedlings in March-April or in open ground in May.
During spring sowing, the seeds are pre-stratified in the refrigerator.
The catchment is a perennial plant, so the seedlings will bloom only in the second year of life. The third year can be considered their full flowering in the literal and figurative senses, but after 4-5 years, the bush must be divided and transplanted.
Aquilegia can also be propagated by cuttings of shoots.
Aquilegia is great for rabatok, alpine slides, mixborders.
Brugmansia is an exotic, thermophilic crop that grows like a shrub or low tree. In our area, it is not common, but can be grown on the coast of the Crimea and the Caucasus.
Of course, it is difficult to confuse the huge, exhaling heady aroma of inflorescences of Brugmansia with a much more modest bell, but they really have something in common.
In artificial conditions, Brugmansia is propagated not only by dividing rhizomes, but also by germinating cuttings.
All parts of this plant are poisonous!
Galanthus is a familiar snowdrop, the first messenger of spring. Depending on the weather and climatic conditions, it blooms in February-March.
Galanthus is very easily propagated by seed, but the seedlings will bloom no earlier than after 5-6 years. Hardly any amateur gardener would agree to wait so long. That is why the most popular method of propagating snowdrops is with daughter bulbs.
During the season, one or two children are formed on the bulb, so that the flower grows from year to year, occupying an increasingly large area. It is advisable not to interfere with this process, since galanthus does not really like transplants. Nevertheless, it is possible to transplant it, if agricultural technology is properly observed:
Hyacinthoides, or wild hyacinth, is also known as the Spanish scavenger, scylla or endymion. Let the name not scare you - this bulbous perennial feels quite well in the middle lane.
This is a tall, handsome handsome man with a height of 30-45 cm, strewn with a scattering of purple bell-shaped inflorescences.
Its flowering occurs at the end of spring - the beginning of summer. Accordingly, they plant it in the ground in the fall, in September.
Planting is carried out to a depth of 10-15 cm, maintaining the same distance between the bulbs.
Gentian is not only a charming decorative, but also a medicinal plant. Decoctions and infusions based on it have been used since ancient times to treat all kinds of diseases.
There is a tradition that the Illyrian king Gentus, using the yellow gentian, even treated the plague. In honor of him, the genus of these plants in Latin was named - Gentiana. But the Russian name, gentian - “tribute” to the characteristic bitter taste of its leaves and rhizomes.
Various types of gentian grow throughout the globe. In the European part of our continent, the most common are Gentian gentian, Gluz gentian, stemless gentian, pulmonary gentian, rough Siberian gentian in Siberia and the Far East.
Representatives of these species are outwardly similar to each other, their inflorescences are of a characteristic shape in the form of a bell with petals of a bright bluish-violet hue.
This flower is unpretentious, it feels great in rockeries and on alpine slides.
The easiest way to propagate gentian is winter sowing. If you sow it in the spring, you will have to arrange the seeds with a three-stage stratification by heat, then cold and again warm.
Low-growing species that grow with curtains (stemless, Clouse) can be propagated by division.
Planting bell seeds
For all bell varieties, seed cultivation is most preferred. Terry varieties are an exception, since seedlings are not able to maintain this trait and there is a great risk of lack of ovary. Plant seeds do not require prior preparation before planting. Seedlings can be grown both in containers and in open ground.
When to sow bell seeds?
For the cultivation of flower seedlings garden bell, you can use different planting schemes:
- Collected or acquired seed material is planted in containers in early spring, preferably in March. In this case, in perennial forms, flowers can be seen in the first year of life.
- Possible winter landing in open ground, which is carried out at the end of October. In the spring, it will be possible to obtain seedlings of the strongest seeds that have undergone natural selection, and transplant plants to a permanent place.
- In spring, bellflower seeds are sown in open ground at the beginning of May. With this method of planting for the first year of life, the plant will increase the root system and leaf rosettes. Flowering is possible only in the next growing season.
Where to plant a bell?
Even given the endurance and relative unpretentiousness of the plant, there are more preferred places for planting it:
- A large number of varieties suitable neutral or slightly alkaline earth, loam with a drainage layer. There are varieties adapted to rocky and calcareous soils.
- A terry bell flower is demanding in sunlight, so it is better to plant such varieties in well-lit areas.
- All decorative varieties are recommended to be planted a little at a distance from trees and shrubs to obtain a sufficient amount of moisture. Possible partial shade landing.
How to plant a bell?
Agrotechnics for growing seeds will vary depending on the chosen method:
- In the container method, it is necessary to pour light and fertile soil into a prepared container and moisten it first. It is important to distribute the seeds of the purple bell flower evenly throughout the container and not sprinkle it with earth, but only slightly tamp with your palm. The next step is spraying with water and covering with a film. After 2-3 weeks, the first shoots will appear, which must be protected from direct sunlight.
- When planting in open ground, the earth is previously deeply dug up. Sand is added to heavy soils, and fertilizers to depleted soils. Do not feed with manure or peat because of the risk of damage to the planting by fungal infections. Seeds are laid in shallow grooves and slightly sprinkled with moisturized earth. Aisles can be mulched.
Ammonia for the garden: fertilizer and pest protection
Growing seedlings: basic rules
Where to start sowing seedlings?
- If there are no bells in your garden yet, or if you are interested in cultivating a new variety, then the only available breeding method is buying seeds. Choose the variety you are interested in, and make sure that the packaging was made no later than three years ago - the seeds retain their germination for a long time, but the younger, the better.
- Before starting sowing, rinse the seeds with a one percent solution of potassium permanganate. This procedure is guaranteed to disinfect them. Dry.
- Seed germination is good in itself, so they do not need to be treated with a growth stimulant.
- Soil for seedlings can either be purchased in a specialized store (universal soil for flowering plants will be enough), or prepared independently. To do this, mix two parts of fertile land, one part of river sand and one part humus. In order to prevent soil and sand before mixing, you can calcine on fire - this will disinfect them from the possible presence of spores of pathogenic fungi
- A container for seedlings needs a large, common. No picking of seedlings is performed.
The bell is garden. Planting a bell for seedlings:
- Choose a container suitable for seedlings and check for drainage holes on its bottom. If they are missing, you can make them yourself.
- Before pouring the soil mixture into the container, pour about 5 cm thick drainage layer on its bottom. You can use pebbles or expanded clay for this. Before sowing, the soil is watered well.
- No special holes are made. Try to spread the seeds relatively evenly over the entire surface of the soil. Press each into the ground to a depth of about 2 cm and sprinkle. Water the seedlings again.
- Cover the seedlings with glass or film and store at a temperature of about 20 degrees.
- Water the shoots sparingly, and ventilate for 15 minutes every day.
- Usually, seedlings begin to appear after a couple of weeks. And another month is needed for them to grow stronger and give the first leaves.
- When shoots appear, the film (or glass) is removed. And the container is rearranged in a slightly cooler place with medium light. Prolonged exposure to direct sunlight should be avoided.
- Total for growing seedlings on average requires only a half to two months. After which it is planted in open ground.
How to care for bells?
Unlike a wildflower of a bell, decorative varieties for abundant and long flowering require some care:
- Regular watering with subsequent loosening of the soil.
- Removing weeds and wilted inflorescences. In tall varieties, faded shoots are completely cut off.
- Stems with a height of more than 30 cm require a garter to the supports.
- Regular fertilizer application. In the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are suitable for these purposes to stimulate the growth of green mass. In the summer, during the formation of buds, complex fertilizers rich in phosphorus are introduced. In autumn, to increase winter hardiness, potassium compounds can be added under the bell flower.
Mulch and you will not have any special problems with watering. The main thing in this business is to monitor the level of soil moisture - not to allow it to dry out, and to eliminate stagnant puddles of water if they suddenly appear. Mostly bushes are watered in dry weather. In rainy weather, watering is not required.
But water for irrigation will have to tinker a little once. To do this, it is recommended to use rain or melt water. Accordingly, it is necessary to be able to collect rainwater, for which rain is needed, and indeed it should not be stored for a long time. And if there is rain, then there is no need to water. But, here, recommend.
It’s easier and more logical to harvest melt water. To do this, you need a freezer and preferably more - if it can accommodate a five-liter bucket of water, this is already good, but the more, the better. The whole process of converting ordinary water from a tap into melt water consists of two stages:
1) Water is placed in the freezer and kept there until it almost completely freezes.The most important thing at this stage is not to overexpose the water - approximately in the middle of the bucket (if you selected it), a small bubble of water remains under the ice crust, which has not yet frozen. These are heavy metal oxides, they freeze last. And this water must be drained.
2) The second stage is defrosting. And it also needs to be carried out not completely. When most of the ice has already thawed (about 70-80%), the remaining ice must be removed from the water and discarded. These are all kinds of sedimentary impurities that thaw longer than anything else.
As a result, you get water in which sediment does not form, no matter how much it stands. The taste qualities of such water are also at their best, and most likely you will not only water the flowers, but also start to drink it yourself, and even cook food on it. Therefore, at the very beginning I emphasized that the more the freezer can process water at a time, the better - it will not be superfluous.
Loosening and mulching
Loosening is necessary for an additional influx of oxygen to the roots, which accelerates their development, and for the prevention of stagnation of water. It is usually recommended to carry out it simultaneously with weeding some time after watering. Loosen the grant to a depth of no more than 3 cm, so as not to damage the roots.
The mulching thickness should not exceed five centimeters, otherwise the risk of root overheating is possible.
Tall bells need to be tied to a support. As a support, use pegs or a net.
Trimming, clothespin, pinching
To strengthen the immunity of flowers and to maintain their appearance, damaged, drying and yellowing leaves and shoots are removed from the bushes throughout the season. And experienced gardeners also pinch them before flowering - it is believed that this will increase flowering for the next season. How to do this is better to learn with a good example and this only makes sense with perennial species.
In the spring, during the growth period, the flower culture can be fed with nitrogen additives. In the soil, you can add a little wood ash, rotted manure. Before flowering, the soil is fertilized with potash and phosphorus substances at the rate of 35 grams per 1 square meter of land.
Flowers are transplanted extremely rarely - they do not tolerate it. Cuttings grow well and bloom in one place for about 5 years, after which they gradually begin to degenerate. It is in this case that they usually transplant to a new place, where they will continue their flowering with renewed vigor.
They carry out a transplant in the fall, when the bushes have already bloomed and the seed bolls are fully formed and matured. The bushes are trimmed to a height of about 20 cm, carefully scooped up together with a lump of earth and transplanted to a new place. A little organic fertilizer is added to the new wells. After this, the seedlings are covered with compost or peat, in preparation for wintering.
The top of the stem should be pinched at the very beginning of summer. This procedure stimulates the growth of lateral shoots, and the stem will not stretch much.
Rules for landing in open ground
Usually, at the time of transplanting seedlings into open ground, the ground itself is already prepared. (What requirements should it meet, read a little lower.) Dig a site to a depth of about 20 cm so that it is as loose as possible (break up large clods). Wells for seedlings are dug at a distance of 15 cm from each other. At the bottom of each well, place a little nitrogenous top dressing, peat, or mullein solution.
For the transplant itself, you need to choose a warm sunny day (no precipitation). Carefully scoop up seedlings together with a lump of earth on the roots, and transplant them into prepared holes. Immediately after transplanting, young shoots should be well watered with warm water.
When to plant
For warm regions and regions with a temperate climate, all procedures can be started already in late April - early May. For colder climates, all periods shift at least a month in advance.
Growing in such a climate begins not earlier than the end of May - beginning of June. Seedlings begin to grow in the month of March - this is suitable for any region, since it is produced at home.
Winter cultivation is also practiced in the south, usually until the first half of October. Winter crops necessarily mulch.
The main criteria that you need to pay attention to when choosing a site for sowing are the illuminance of the site, the composition of the soil, moisture and wind protection, if you plan to grow tall species. Tall bushes are often planted along buildings or around arbors.
It is highly recommended not to place bushes near shrubs and trees - the flowers may not have enough nutrients. Sowing near water sources is also not recommended.
Relations with the weather for calls are peculiar. Prolonged heat and temperature above 25 degrees, they feel bad, and begin to fade. But they have a high resistance to frost, calmly survive sudden cooling and large temperature differences.
Since the heat of the bells is a burden, the lighting they need is moderate, scattered, shady areas are best suited. This is quite combined with their most successful application in landscape design - among many photophilous plants, they will perfectly cope with the refinement of not the most well-lit areas of your garden.
Swampy and wetland bells are completely contraindicated. The same applies to the lowlands. An excess of moisture is highly likely to cause various fungal diseases. But, not everything is so bad - if you monitor the moisture of the soil, prevent stagnation of water and water on time at the same time, problems with diseases most often do not arise.
All of the above requirements one way or another relate primarily to the soil. The earth should be crumbly, quickly let moisture through so that it does not stagnate. To increase its drainage properties, if the soil is dense and heavy, you can add coarse sand. But this will help only if it is not too lazy and thoroughly loosens the top layer of the land.
It is highly recommended not to choose for lowland seedlings - in them, as usual, water accumulates. Landing process
Bluebells are unpretentious plants, and the whole process of their cultivation is no different from growing many other flowers. For an experienced gardener, this is not a big deal. And for a novice gardener it will be a useful experience that is useful for growing more capricious and demanding plants.
The culture propagates by seeds or vegetatively, that is, cuttings, division of the rhizome. Each species has its own method of reproduction.
Propagated exclusively by the seed method. Seeds can be sown in October on a flower bed. During the winter, they will undergo a natural stratification, and in the spring they all come together in unison. Seeds are usually sown in pots (cups) in March, and in May they are sown directly on the flowerbed. Pre-seed is kept in the refrigerator, on a shelf with vegetables, for 2 months.
They can multiply by seeds, and in spring - by green cuttings. Young stems are taken on the cuttings. They are cut from stem or root shoots, put into water. The roots of the cuttings grow back after 3-4 weeks.
Propagated by seeds and vegetatively. The seed method is suitable for plants with a core root system. With seed propagation, varietal characters are not always preserved.
Bells with branched roots can multiply by dividing the rhizome. With vegetative propagation, you can get a plant with all the hereditary traits, similar to maternal culture. This method is practiced for terry species and southern varieties that do not have time to give seeds in the continental climate.
Peduncles after flowering are removed. The plant can remain on the garden bed until October. Then all ground stalks are cut.
Seed collection and storage
When the boxes with seeds become brownish, they should be cut off before they open. The collected boxes are dried, after which small black seeds are extracted from them. Store seeds until next spring in paper envelopes. True, seeds can be sown in the ground immediately in the fall, before frost.
At the end of September, the shoots of all bells are cut to the root. Biennials and perennials are additionally insulated with a thick layer of dry foliage or peat mixed with humus. The thickness of the mulch should be 20 centimeters. In winter, you need to constantly pour snow on the place where the wintering roots are located.
Combination with other plants
In landscape design, low and tall varieties are combined with daisies, stunted phlox, red loaches. High species can be made the center of a flower arrangement or planted in the middle of a flower table. Carpathian varieties look impressive under the crowns of various trees.
Low views are good for collective planting, for example, they look spectacular when decorating a border. The same Carpathian species or, for example, crowded species can be used to create rose gardens. Picturesque paintings can be created by placing bells on stony hills.
Diseases and Pests
Culture attracts gardeners and the fact that it has a strong immunity to defeat diseases and pests. However, sometimes this problem does not pass by the bells, especially often this occurs when the rules of agricultural technology are not observed.
So, long-term cultivation in one place can provoke the development of such fungi as rust, powdery mildew, rot of roots and root neck.
The appearance of rust is indicated by yellow or brown pads on the inside of the sheet. Damaged leaves become dry. Revive the plant will help the mechanical elimination of the affected fragments. And also in spring and autumn, a diseased specimen should be treated with a 0.2% solution of Fundazole.
Noticing the browned parts of the plant, which gradually soften, decay, a gray coating forms on them, we can assume that the bell has become a victim of rot. An effective method of control will again be a 0.2% solution of Fundazole. The formation of powdery mildew speaks of powdery mildew. As a preventative measure, the culture is treated before flowering with a solution of copper sulfate in a proportion of 100 g per 10 l of water.
Of the insects, the main enemies are slugs.
They love to feast on the leaves and flowers of the culture presented. These pests are the result of non-compliance with the conditions of planting and care. For example, they often affect thickened plantings, appear during poor tillage and untimely removal of weeds.
Usually gardeners use metaldehyde to fight slugs. In addition, an effective method is the manual assembly of individuals. Some summer residents specially populate the site with frogs, lizards, hedgehogs, which will help to get rid of slugs in a natural way.
Sometimes the roots damage the common bear. To rid the plant of this scourge, the soil should be thoroughly loosened throughout the growing season. Loosening will help destroy the underground passages of the insect, destroy eggs and larvae, and make passage to the roots more difficult. Try to abandon this type of top dressing as mullein - it attracts a bear.
Bells can be not only a favorite indoor plant, but also become part of the interior design. For example, flowers can be used as a beautiful accent when decorating a living room. Pots with delicate blue flowers can be arranged in empty boring corners of the apartment. Balconies and terraces decorated with bells look very nice.
But still, most spectacularly, this indoor culture looks like a single accent. For example, the room is filled with special romantic and girlish atmosphere, in which the bells are planted on a “clean” soft restrained background.
But elaborate containers and an abundance of design elements when decorating a room with bells are best avoided - these are modest, delicate flowers, the delicate image of which will only spoil when the design is supplemented with unnecessary colorful details.
About different types of bells, see the video.