Gloxinia care: 6 important conditions and requirements, useful tips
The second name of gloxinia is synningia. The plant is named after its discoverer - the doctor and botanist Benjamin Gloksin. Another scientist, William Sinning, created several hybrid varieties, which diversified the look.
Indoor flower gloxinia belongs to the Gesneriaceae family. This family includes about 1,800 species, mainly growing in the tropics and subtropics. All of them have one distinctive property - their flowering is extremely attractive. Plants love light and prefer a cold wintering.
In appearance, gloxinia is similar to the violet with which they belong to the same family. The same saturated colors, velvety leaves, a combination of several shades in one peduncle.
The shoots of a flower are small if it receives enough light. The underground part is a tuber. The flowers are similar in shape to a bell, but each hybrid has its own unique shape.
In winter, the aboveground part dies, but the tuber continues to live, in the spring to drive out new shoots and tie buds. Large flower - 5 to 7 cm in diametercan be ordinary or double, grow one at a time or in inflorescence. Sometimes you can meet a specimen with the number of flowers before 40 pieces.
Home Growing Conditions
Plants of subtropical and especially tropical zones are not as easy to maintain as it might seem at first glance. They require compliance with certain rules. Caring for gloxinia at home in a pot is a constant attention and prudence, otherwise it will not bloom. There are many cases when gardeners bought a healthy flowering plant, but after a period of rest it died. There is an explanation for this.
When growing gloxinia, long daylight hours are a prerequisite for its flowering. In summer it's 12 - 14 hoursless in winter. For growth suitable southern or southeastern windowsill, shelving. At the same time, so that the leaves and shoots feel good, you can not put the pot in direct sunlight. This will lead to a fast withering of the flowers, yellowing of the foliage, loss of turgor. For shading, you can use a transparent curtain or blinds.
In the winter months, light does not play a special role if the species discards leaves. If the plant does not drop the leaves, it must be kept in the light and even turn on a phytolamp.
On dimly lit window sills, gloxinia shoots are elongated, the bush itself is thinning, and chlorotic leaves appear.
Ground and pot requirements for gloxinia houseplant
Gloxinia responds positively to the same soil mixture that is selected for violets. A good addition to the substrate is perlite or vermiculite. The mixture, which is prepared independently, consists of deciduous land, peat and sand in the proportions of 3: 3: 2. From organics, 200 g of humus is suitable for 5 liters of land. The rosette of the plant feels good in a wide low pot with the obligatory addition of drainage.
How to water and feed gloxinia
Watering is carried out carefully: you can not get water on either the outlet or the leaves. It is advisable to humidify through a pallet. A signal for urgent irrigation is a dry top layer of the substrate. Since mid-August, watering has been reduced, but systematically. This is done for a smooth transition in the fall to rest. As a fertilizer, a complete mineral complex or fertilizer for Saintpaulias and violets is suitable. It is enough to make top dressing every two weeks.
Do not overfeed the flower, it is better to slightly feed
In August, it is necessary to reduce the quantity and frequency of the introduction of fertilizers, otherwise the plant does not prepare for the dormant period. Lack of top dressing will lead to pallor and nondescript flowering. When a new period of vegetation begins, you can start feeding, - so, the plant is more likely to wake up and go to growth.
Fertilizer is inexpensive, and the plant in response to dressing will please with massive plentiful flowering
How to transplant gloxinia
The plant yearns for an annual transplant at the end of winter. Pre-prepare new soil. If the tuber has increased markedly, then the pot is selected more than the previous one. We will tell you how to plant gloxinia tuber in a new pot. First, a layer of drainage is laid, then a little substrate is poured and an earthen lump with a flower is lowered onto it. The space is filled with soil, crushed and carefully watered.
The tuber should only be half in the soil.
Sometimes gardeners hear the question of how to plant and care for the gloxinia bulb. We answer: this plant has no bulbs. The correct name is tuber.
There are various gloxinia diseases that can be avoided with proper care. One of the common problems that gardeners face when growing this plant is gray rot. Brown spots appear on the leaves, which gradually increase. The sheet must be removed immediately. The plant is sprayed with fungicides.
Another gloxinia disease is root rot. The stem at the base begins to rot. Also, spots appear on the roots. This happens if you water the plant too often or use cold water for this.
If a plant is weakened, it cannot resist pest attacks. Most often, gloxinia affects a cyclamen tick. You can not see it with the naked eye. A gray coating appears on the back of the leaves. It looks like dust. Leaves become thicker, denser. The buds are wilting. You need to purchase the appropriate tool and treat it with a plant. Avoid gross mistakes when growing. This will help protect the plant from pests and diseases, strengthen its immunity.
Care for gloxinia during dormancy
The completion of the gloxinia vegetation period occurs in mid-autumn.
When the aboveground part dies, the tuber gradually passes into a state of "hibernation", ceasing to develop and consume moisture. At this time, it is important to first reduce, and then completely stop watering.
For the entire period of rest, as in the photo, care for gloxinia at home is changing. First of all, it is important for the tuber to ensure safe storage. Do this in one of two ways:
- the pot is transferred to a cool room where the air is not warmer than 10–15 ° C, and sometimes moistened to prevent the tubers from drying out;
- after the death of the foliage, the tubers are removed from the soil, cleaned and sprinkled with sand or sawdust placed in the cold.
In the second case, the storage temperature of gloxinia tubers is 5–8 ° C, and the substrate in which they are located should be dry or barely wet, otherwise the appearance of rot and mold. This storage method is convenient because planting material does not take up much space, and caring for gloxinia is reduced to examining sleeping tubers.
Care after flowering
After the flowering is over, as a rule, this happens in May or June, it will be necessary to cut the stem, and also almost all leaf plates, from 2 to 4 lower leaves should remain on the bush. In the axils of these leaves, stepchildren should grow in the near future, of which 2 most powerful ones should be selected, and the remaining ones should be cut. Experts advise in this period to feed gloxinia with fertilizers for growth, and 4 weeks after the appearance of the buds, the plant will need fertilizers for flowering. Most often, repeated flowering is more scarce when compared with the first. In some cases, flowering lasts all summer, and then the plant does not bloom again. After the plant fades completely, it is necessary to gradually reduce watering, and also stop feeding it. When the leaf plates turn yellow and dry, the tops must be shortened so that a stump remains on the tuber, reaching a length of 10–20 mm.
It is easier to rejuvenate the leaf petiole. Leave the petiole 2 cm on the leaf. After 25 minutes (when the cut dries), plant in moist soil. Place in a plastic bag, making a small hole. Shelter is removed after the root has taken root.
If you plant a young rosette, buds may appear on a new plant soon.
Can be updated with sprouts from an old plant. It is necessary to break the sprout, plant in a substrate, cover with a bag
They also rejuvenate by dividing the tuber by the number of eyes. Cut the slice with wood ash. Plant in the ground.
Growing gloxinia from seeds
Gloxinia is very easily propagated by seed. Their sowing is carried out from February to March. To do this, prepare a plastic container of a suitable size and a loose, moisture-absorbing substrate. For example, you can use industrial soil for universal use. Gloxinia seeds are very small, they are sown on the surface of previously moistened soil without subsequent planting. After that, the container is covered with a piece of glass or film.
Shoots appear after 7-10 days. They must be periodically ventilated and watered. After 10 days, the glass is removed. After the appearance of this leaflet, they are carefully dived into a more spacious container. In general, from the time of sowing to flowering takes about 6 months.
Gloxinia leaf propagation
Gloxinia can also be propagated vegetatively. To do this, leafy cuttings are harvested from the bottom of a healthy, well-developed plant. Leaves are cut with a sharp, pre-sanitized knife.
The resulting slice is dried for about 30 minutes.
After that, the sheet is fixed in a vessel with water. Its lower part should only slightly touch the surface. Water must be added as it evaporates. As soon as the baby begins to develop on the base of the stem, the leaf is planted in a loose substrate.
Root leaf cuttings can be directly in the soil. A mixture of peat and vermiculite is prepared for their planting. Cuttings are buried no more than 1 cm. To create a greenhouse effect, the leaves are covered with a jar or plastic bag. If everything was done correctly, after 1-1.5 months sprouts appear on the soil surface.
How to propagate a peduncle
Propagation of gloxinia peduncle
Not all species and varieties of Gloxinia can propagate by peduncle. Simple varieties take root best. The breeding process is as follows:
- flower stalks are cut and cut from the bottom to a length of not more than 7.5 cm;
- then you can root them in water or in the ground, like sheets;
- when rooting in water, no more than 1-1.5 cm of water is poured into the bottom of the glass, into which the peduncle is placed;
- planting in the soil, on top of the peduncle is covered with a film and after 50-60 days receive the finished seedlings.
Apex of gloxinia
It is also easy to propagate Gloxinia with the apex. To do this:
- carefully trim the upper part of the flower with a sharp tool;
- place in a glass of water or in nutritious soil mixture until completely rooting;
- then you can transplant the flower to a permanent place.
Propagation of gloxinia by stepsons
Propagate this indoor plant by stepsons as follows:
- gently break off the stepson, who grew up in the bosom of the leaf;
- put for rooting in a glass with water;
- after the appearance of the roots, transplant into a pot with a nutrient substrate.
If the preference in choosing the gloxinia propagation method is given to tuber division, it is worth taking a note: this technique is painful for the tuber and can not only increase the time of emergence of sprouts, but also kill the tubers. Extremely healthy and healthy tubers are suitable for propagation. You can’t try to divide rotted specimens, as a rule, you can’t get a healthy plant out of them.
In order for the flower to be powerful and delight with large flowers, it is worth choosing large tubers, the size of which is at least 6 cm in diameter. To divide a tuber is possible only when there are already sprouts on it. At the same time, the height of their shoots should be at least two cm.
It is advisable that they already have two or four full sheets.
They take a sharp knife or a scalpel, disinfect it with an alcohol solution and cut the tuber so that each divided part has at least one sprout or kidney. Slices are processed with crushed charcoal or brilliant green and allow them to dry. Someone, for greater neutralization, additionally processes the cuts and garden var. After this, the dividers are planted in prepared pots with an earthen mixture.
Since it is impossible to directly pour water on chopped tubers, it is necessary to water the plant during the period of rehabilitation and rooting through a pallet. You can use an ordinary medical syringe for watering, pouring water out of it, sticking a needle into the ground. Someone thinks that they should be planted in transparent plastic glasses, explaining this by the fact that the growing roots of white color are so visible.
The time for transplanting to a new place will come when the root system fills the entire earthen lump of the glass.
Where and how to store the tubers of the “asleep” gloxinia
There are two ways to store gloxinia tubers at home in winter: in the ground and without it. Each of them has its own characteristics, so before you make a choice, you need to familiarize yourself with them. Regardless of the method selected, the general storage rules must be followed throughout the rest period:
- lack of bright light;
- temperature regime - from +3 to +12 degrees;
- moderate humidity is 60-85%.
Important! Only if all conditions are met will the flower survive the winter well and will be able to please lush flowering in the next season.
What to do if gloxinia woke up early
With early awakening, you must:
- Pinch the apex from the stem, leaving a couple of leaf plates near the ground. The top is used for rooting.
- Move the pot with leaves on the windowsill, provide the culture with appropriate care.
- You can simply break off the shoots that have appeared. Continue to store planting material in the usual way.
Tubers can wake up in February-March. Those bulbs where shoots have already appeared should be transplanted into a pot or pot with a nutrient substrate. When planting, the tuber is instilled in such a way that it is barely visible. Since gloxinia is a photophilous plant, it is placed in a well-lit place. If necessary, you can use a fluorescent lamp.
In the first 7 days, the plant is not watered to exclude the likelihood of putrefactive processes. After some time, the flower begins to be watered as necessary. Increased watering stimulates growth, but do not overmoisten the soil.
Extra shoots are best removed, and leave only a few strong shoots. Such thinning will protect the tuber from depletion. After all, the abundance of flowers depends on its size. Excess shoots can be used as seedlings. Such cuttings are instilled in any suitable container, covered with a glass and a plastic bag. Several holes are made over a kind of dome to avoid accumulation of excess moisture. Gradually, the plant begins to harden.
Important! Gloxinia has a very sensitive root system, so you need to fertilize after watering to avoid burns of the tuber.
Why does gloxinia not bloom?
There are several reasons why gloxinia does not bloom:
- deficiency or excess moisture - adjust watering;
- when the flower is kept in the room at a temperature below + 15 ° С, the buds do not bloom - restore the optimal temperature regime;
- an excess of nitrogen in the soil - choosing fertilizer, give preference to compositions with a high content of potassium;
- the plant stands in direct sunlight - change the location of the pot.
The tuber survival depends on how the plant grower will act after flowering gloxinia.
Did you know?Astrologers attribute gloxinia to talisman talisman flowers. When growing such a plant at home, the representative of this zodiac sign will be able to fully reveal his potential.
If all the rules have been observed, in spring the plant will enter a phase of active vegetation with renewed vigor.
Features after winter care
After the wintering period, gloxinia begins the vegetation. After the first shoots have appeared, the plant is removed from the pot and the tubers are cleaned under running water. It will not be superfluous to hold the root system in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This will be especially useful for those flowers in which rotting or rotting was observed during the winter; also carry out such an operation with those tubers that are transplanted for the first time.
The next step is to plant gloxinia in a substrate. First, we add claydite and soil to it to the middle of the pot. In the center we install the tuber itself and fill it with soil. Gloxinia should be watered often, but in small portions. After 2-3 weeks, you can start feeding the plant. Also, do not forget about the addition of complex trace elements in small non-concentrated doses.
In this issue, there are 3 stages:
- Before flowering, add nitrogen fertilizers, alternating it with a small amount of compounds containing potassium and phosphorus.
- During flowering, we reduce the proportion of nitrogen fertilizers and increase the proportion of phosphorus in the fertilizing. This will contribute to the growth of peduncles.
- After flowering, potassium should prevail in nutrients to enable the tuber to stock up on nutrients.
Important! That part of the plant from which the young sprouts came from should remain above the surface to prevent their decay.
Sometimes a plant may not “wake up” in time after winter. One possible reason may be a very short rest period (less than 4 months). For example, during dry wintering, the root may dry out. In this case, you need to put the flower in the light and water in small doses. After a while, gloxinia will return to normal and begin to "wake up." Another reason may be the fact that a very young plant was placed for wintering, which did not have time to form a tuber by that time, or it rotted during the winter.
Another, unfortunately, a very common cause of the problem can be a rhizome of too low quality, the strength of which was enough for only one season. This option is often found on purchased tubers, which may simply be old or infected with various diseases. To find the cause of the problem, dig the root itself. If he is very wrinkled, then most likely he died. If not, carefully cut the tuber.
Did you know? According to scientific research by Thai scientists, keeping gloxinia at home is the best way to combat oxygen starvation.
A healthy root should have a slightly yellowish or pinkish tint. In this case, dry the incision and treat it with an antiseptic. Further gloxinia will take time to “wake up”. If the cut at the root is brown, then such a root will not be able to be revived. But if a brown hue is observed only on one side, then remove the completely rotten part and plant the tuber in a new soil. Such a plant can still be saved.
There are 25 species. Of these, two species (royal and beautiful) are the basis of many varieties.
Cleopatra. Differs in refinement of petals. Their wavy edges are covered with peas, which in the middle are connected in solid purple lines.
Kaiser Wilhelm. A lot of fleshy leaves. Beginning of flowering after 3 years. At the same time produces a large number of peduncles. The petals are dark purple, with a white border around the edge.
Yesenia. Lush harmonious bush with dark pink flowers.
Winter cherry. The bush is magnificent. Has buds with white petals of large sizes, covered with red, maroon dots.
A small bush has thickened 10-centimeter shoots. The leaves are dark green, with the edge, at the top they are streaked with silver streaks, below - light red. Oval-shaped leaves, large (up to 200 mm in length), are located opposite to four or six pieces.
Bell flowers are also impressive in size (diameter up to 7 cm). Their color is usually dark purple, although there are hybrid varieties with inflorescences of other shades.
Gloxinia is beautiful
This variety is distinguished by a dense scaly rhizome, very small shoots (because of which the plant looks squat), wide oval leaves that begin to taper to the base. Leaf blades are usually light green in color.
However, the most important thing is, of course, the flowers. They are different - large and small, drooping and sticking up, bell-shaped and funnel-shaped ... The riot of colors is striking: red, white, purple, lilac, etc.
The flower has a huge number of hybrid forms, which differ, including the color of the buds. So, gloxinia Scarlet charms with scarlet flowers, Red Storm strikes with dark red buds resembling roses. And then there is Marshmallow with pale pink petals and Southern Night with almost black inflorescences.
The flowers are large. Petals are dark blue or dark purple. A thin white border around the edges.
The bells are huge, bright crimson, also have a clear white border around the edge of the petals.
Blanche de Meru
The snow-white middle of the flowers is bordered with bright raspberry fringing.
Advantages and disadvantages of storage methods
The proposed methods for maintaining the viability of tubers are used in accordance with the age and condition of the plant. They have their pros and cons:
- young gloxinia is left in the ground for the winter, so it is more likely to prevent the tuber from drying out;
- if there is not a suitable place for placing pots or flowers very much, then the outside method is more suitable;
- when placing tubers in bags, the risk of rot formation increases, so they are often checked;
- it is most convenient to keep gloxinia packets in the refrigerator in the winter;
- if there is no suitable room or large refrigerator, it is optimal to place the roots for storage in the bathroom;
- Gloxinia purchased in the fall can be preserved in a soilless manner with mandatory pre-disinfection.
If the tubers were stored in unsuitable conditions, they wake up early. To solve this problem, there are several solutions:
- If very small sprouts appeared on the tuber, then they are left and reduce the amount and volume of moisture.
- Large shoots are cut, and the spine is returned to the storage location. In the spring they transplant it into the prepared soil.
- Immediately plant a tuber in a container and fill it with fluorescent lamps. Then the plant grows weak and very thin. At the end of winter, the top of such a flower is cut off and rooted in another pot. After a short time gloxinia gives young shoots.
- Keep awakened tubers in cooler conditions to slow development. At the same time create high-quality natural lighting.
When the flower does not wake up at the appointed time, its viability is restored as follows:
- At the bottom of the plastic bag lay 2-3 tbsp. l light soil by moistening it with water.
- Place the onion on the ground and seal the bag.
- The bag is placed in a well-lit place so that it has a temperature of +24 to +28 degrees.
- Every 3 days, air the bulb.
After 15 days, the tuber sprouts. Their number depends on the quality of lighting. The better it is, the more sprouts are formed. The awakened plant is transplanted into a pot, leaving 2 shoots on the tuber. Unnecessary are cut and used as a means of reproduction.
When in a greenhouse, a tuber can turn green. This is normal, after planting in the ground it will become the usual shade. Sometimes upon awakening, the roots appear first, not the green mass. Then it is also transplanted into a pot, sprouts appear after a few days.
For the normal life of gloxinia, a full and timely rest is required. After preparations, the tuber is sent for wintering. Rested gloxinia by the beginning of spring will again be full of strength in order to reveal its charming flowers.