Varieties of hot pepper: for open and closed ground with description and photo
Hot pepper description
Hot, spicy, chili - these are the names of hot peppers and they are all true. Europeans owe the appearance of this plant to H. Columbus, who brought sharp pods after his famous trip to another continent.
All varieties of bitter pepper contain in the pods (seeds and internal partitions) a special alkaloid - capsaicin, which ensures the burning of fruits. The amount of capsaicin can be different, therefore, peppers have a different sharpness.
In addition, the fruits contain:
- vitamins of various groups (A, B1, B2, B6, C, PP, K) and others;
- essential oils.
Vitamins A and C are found in large quantities in ripe pods of hot pepper, while in greens they are much smaller. But fruits are also suitable for consumption in the stage of technical ripeness, in addition, harvesting such pods allows you to increase the total yield.
ON A NOTE! Sweet pepper does not contain capsaicin.
To determine the degree of hotness of pepper, there is a special unit - one scoville, but usually gardeners have enough information in the description (sharp, slightly sharp, burning, etc.). The severity of the fruit largely depends on the variety, but we must remember about the growing conditions, agricultural technology.
In hot and humid climates, peppers will be more burning than plant pods grown in short and cool summers. Although Russian spicy lovers successfully grow such varieties as jalapenos, cayenne hot peppers and others.
Due to its pungency, pepper has long been used as a seasoning for various dishes, a component of sauces, as well as an additive to marinades, pickles, and preservation. In its pure form, again due to its specific taste, pods are usually not consumed. With pepper, dishes such as:
- vegetable caviar (from zucchini, eggplant, tomatoes);
- pickles (both one pepper and assorted).
Peppers are salted, fermented, pickled, canned, baked.
The use of fruits - in pods (fresh), as well as in dry form (whole fruits, ground in powder). Various spicy mixtures, such as hops-suneli, curry, contain pods of certain types of hot pepper.
The special properties of pepper caused its use for medicinal purposes. Regular (but normal) use of hot seasonings improves the digestive system, helps to increase immunity. Specialists noted that the fruits of burning, sometimes causing tears, pepper contain special components that affect the production of hormones of good mood and happiness - endorphin and scroplomin. So with full confidence we can say that hot peppers can improve mood.
ON A NOTE! When working with many varieties of red pepper, be careful and use gloves.
It is believed that pepper has a very good effect on blood vessels, improves heart function, enhances brain activity. The vegetable has anti-inflammatory bactericidal, warming properties, so it is often added as one of the components in the joint mixture.
Peppers rich in useful components are needed for the normal functioning of the nervous system, relieve stress, increase stress resistance. It helps with insomnia, depression, improves the general condition of the body (both physical and psychological). The useful properties of this culture were known in antiquity, not by accident in Asia and on the American continent, hot pepper is not only a spice and an essential component of many national dishes, but also one of the most important medicines.
Pepper has a diuretic, hematopoietic effect, improves the condition of hair, skin, nails, promotes the growth of hair. At the same time, the vegetable is low-calorie and there are many diets for weight loss, where one of the elements is hot chili.
Pepper is useful for female and male health, it allows you to solve some problems of a sexual nature. But at the same time, one should never forget about contraindications and strict adherence to dosages.
Bitter pepper is a product that must be handled very carefully. In contact with mucous membranes, as well as with areas of skin where there is irritation, a burn may occur. Especially often this happens with especially burning varieties, the pods of which contain an increased amount of capsaicin. If there are unpleasant sensations, burning sensation is felt, then the skin must be washed quickly with plenty of cold water.
When burning in the mouth, on the lips, it is recommended to use fermented milk products:
- fermented baked milk.
It neutralizes the burning effect of pepper lemon, rice. Drinking pepper with water is useless, as burning does not stop.
It is not recommended to use hot pepper for food to those who suffer from diseases of the kidneys, liver, who have high blood pressure, as well as to pregnant and lactating women. And, of course, you can’t eat spicy dishes for children, and if you really want to try a tasty snack, then only a small amount is allowed.
Hot peppers are famous for their pungent spicy taste, as well as for their beneficial properties. Therefore, in some countries it is even considered a source of youth and longevity. He came to Europe during the time of Christopher Columbus, and still remains the most popular spice.
In the process of dissemination of culture, breeders bred more and more varieties for cultivation in a particular climate zone. Today, thanks to the work of scientists in the State Register of the Russian Federation, more than a hundred varieties of hot pepper are included, which are zoned for all regions of the country. Most are suitable for growing in open ground, as well as in greenhouses of various designs.
Fruits may differ in color, shape, taste, ripening period and other characteristics. Therefore, in order to choose the best variety, it is recommended to consider the following factors:
- the severity index is estimated on the SHU (Scoville heat units) scale - the higher it is, the sharper the product;
- the severity depends not only on the varietal characteristics, but also on the growing conditions - in a dry climate it is possible to get a more burning taste;
- should compare the growing season of the culture with the duration of the garden season;
- Seeds are best bought from trusted suppliers or certified horticultural stores to avoid counterfeiting.
To get a good crop, first of all, you should carefully approach the choice of seeds, especially considering the fact that there are a huge number of them. Hot peppers can equally well be grown in open ground, in greenhouses and greenhouses, as well as on the balcony.
What should not be forgotten for seeds of different varieties:
- Climatic conditions affect the burning ability of fruits: if they grow in a dry and cool climate, then the sharpness will not be as strong as pepper, which was grown in wetter and hotter conditions.
- It is recommended to germinate the seeds in advance on wet wipes, without this stage, the time of appearance of the first seedlings can take from 2 to 4 weeks.
- When planting, it is imperative to observe the correct distance between plants, since a lack of sunlight will negatively affect the future crop.
- For cultivation in open ground, it is better to choose seed material of early ripeness in order to have time to harvest before the onset of the first frost.
- For foreign breeding, there is an SHU indicator or a measure of Scoville severity. This indicator will tell how sharp the pods will be.
- Rarely found varieties can be found in specialized stores or from connoisseurs of collectors.
Hot pepper seedlings
How to grow hot pepper
The end of February is the best time for seedlings. During this period, it is recommended to place the seeds between two moistened wipes for 4-5 days to open the cotyledons.
Important: it is recommended to sow the seed in small cups, which will avoid the dive stage, which is poorly tolerated by this culture.
In open ground seedlings are planted not earlier than the end of May, or rather the third decade. It is advisable to place the plants in a checkerboard pattern to provide good lighting for each seedling.
Growing hot pepper in open ground
Peppers are watered twice a week, and once every 10 days, bushes should be fed with diluted chicken droppings or nettle infusion.
Harvesting can be extended over several months, as the pods ripen at the same time. It is recommended to tear the peppercorns along with the peduncle and store at a temperature of 18-20 degrees.
There is no particular difficulty in growing hot pepper; its bushes do not need to be specially formed, which simplifies the whole process.
The sharpest grades in the world
Varieties of peppers that are used in cooking with special precautions have been bred; cooks wear protective suits, masks and gloves. There are varieties after which numbness and burning sensation are felt in the hands for several days. Guinness World Records include:
Carolina Reaper (1,569,300 - 2,200,000 units)
Trinidad moruga scorpion
Trinidad Scorpion Butch T (1,463,700 units)
Pot Douglah (aka Chocolate 7 Pot) (923 000 - 1 853 396 units)
The best varieties of hot pepper
Next will be an overview of the most famous and popular among summer residents varieties of this interesting culture. The seeds of many peppers, the descriptions of which are given below, can be purchased in specialized stores, written out from breeders.
Adjika is a mid-early variety characterized by strong and tall bushes that do not require tying. The variety is widespread due to aroma and piquant taste.
The fruits have a rich red hue, wall thickness of about 3 mm and weight 90 g. Up to 25 pods are formed on one bush.
An interesting variety of Medusa, the fruits of which grow up, will surprise with the bright color of the pods and its yield. The bush is very compact, up to 20-25 cm high, so it is great for growing in pots.
Feature of the variety: demanding on lighting, nutrition. The fruits are narrow, cone-shaped pods, in a state of technical ripeness - cream, yellowish, orange, in the biological - bright scarlet.
The taste of the fruit is very burning, bitter. In terms of ripening, Medusa is an early pepper, after 100 days you can harvest the first fruits.
The variety is considered adapted and most in demand among mid-season throughout Russia. Pepper begins to bear fruit 120 days after emergence. The bush is strong and sprawling, semi-ram, reaches a meter in height. The plant gives a high yield of very sharp pods.
You can harvest red peppers for a long time, since the fruiting of this variety is very stretched. Fruits weighing 10 g have a conical shape with a flat tip and a smooth surface.
The height of the bushes of this mid-season variety reaches a height of about a meter. From the moment sprouts appear to harvest, an average of 145 to 150 days pass. Pepper is characterized by a medium degree of sharpness and is well stored. It is used in all types: for harvesting for the winter, fresh and dried. The fruits have an elongated shape with a sharp curved end, resembling a trunk.
Hot peppers that have a spiral shape resembling a ram horn. Medium late appearance. The growing season lasts about 130-140 days. The bush is branched, compact, low. It can grow up to half a meter in length.
Lamb horn grows well on loose fertile soil. It shows good development both in open beds and in greenhouses. Negatively reacts to temperature changes. It tolerates waterlogging. However, in the case of prolonged exposure to high humidity, its taste becomes less bright.
The fruit grows glossy, long and thin, about 1.5 cm in diameter and 25 cm in length. The weight of most specimens is within 20 g. The wall thickness is relatively small - up to 2 mm. In the phase of technical maturity, it acquires green color, in the biological phase - saturated red. The pulp is very burning, with a pleasant aftertaste and pronounced aroma. Lamb horn is suitable for fresh consumption, for the preparation of spices and winter preparations. Some gardeners prefer to immediately preserve another green fruit, because in the process of redness, its skin becomes denser.
The yield of one bush is about 60-70 pieces of quality specimens. From 1 m2 in greenhouse conditions they collect more than 3 kg.
The ripening period of this hybrid is 150 days. The name received pepper for a very unusual and beautiful fruit - in the form of a turban. Ripe fruits have a very pungent taste and are mainly used in the preparation of marinades, salting and canning.
The bushes grow tall, so they need trellis, but bear fruit for a long time and plentifully. Planting and care of the variety are standard. The vizier is resistant to most common diseases.
Plants of this hybrid are distinguished by record yields: up to 6 kg per square meter. The plant is extremely demanding on sunlight and can easily tolerate drought, heat and temperature changes. Therefore, when growing seedlings, additional light sources will be required.
Upward-growing fruits are colored yellow and red, have a conical shape and very fleshy, sharp-tasting walls. The length of the fruit is 20 - 25 cm. The dinosaur belongs to the early ripe varieties - harvesting begins 100-110 days after the growing season. Powerful semi-spreading bushes reach a height of 60 cm.
This wonderful variety of hot pepper under the colorful name For mother-in-law will require a minimum of care from you. It grows small, only up to 50-60 cm, so it does not require garter, formation.
Feature of a grade: unpretentiousness, excellent productivity. Fruits are elongated, cone-shaped, up to 10-13 cm long. The weight of the pods on average is about 55-60 grams. The pulp is juicy, the taste is burning with piquant notes. This variety has a very strong aroma. It is used in cooking, for preservation, various preparations.
By maturity - early, up to 110-115 days.
Dragon's tongue is one of the representatives of the popular spicy and fragrant varieties. Refers to early varieties. The ripening period is 100-110 days. The bush is quite powerful, large and sprawling. It can grow up to 1 m in height. It does not need formation. The productivity of one plant can be 90-100 pieces of quality copies.
The fruits grow elongated, drooping, trunk-shaped, about 12 cm long. In diameter - up to 1 cm, wall thickness - 0.7 mm. The average weight is 17 g. The skin is smooth, glossy, moderate ribbing. Spice is used for preserving and preparing spices in the form of a powder (in particular, paprika).
Dragon's tongue prefers loamy, well-aerated soils. It is recommended to plant in a seedling method, while the planting material can withstand about 60 days. When transplanting into the ground, the distance between the bushes should be at least 30 cm, and between the rows - 60 cm.
The early ripe variety yields very high yields already 110 days after the growing season; you can collect 5-8 kg of peppers per 1 square meter. Outwardly, the yellow and red fruits are not similar to the varieties of hot peppers, since they have a trapezoidal shape as in sweet varieties. But the taste is quite piquant.
The name of the variety speaks for itself - the pods of this "fiery" pepper are very sharp, burning. The bush is very spreading, grows to 120-140 cm, but does not need to be formed. The drooping fruits have the shape of a cone, by weight - small, up to 3-3.5 grams. Unripe peppers have a green color, in a state of biological ripeness they acquire a rich red color.
The variety is included in the State Register of the Russian Federation, it is recommended for cultivation in various regions. It is used in cooking, for spices, for preparing hot powder.
Superchilli - an early hybrid of hot pepper, begins to bear fruit in 70-80 days. The bushes are very compact, about half a meter high. Fruits are spiky cones growing up. The skin color of unripe peppers is light green, then, as it ripens, it turns orange and then bright red.
Pods grow up to 20-25 grams. The taste is spicy, with a pleasant spicy pepper. This hybrid is ideal for growing indoors: on the loggia, balcony.
The "fellow" of the previous hybrid, but only in a different color version is the hybrid Lightning black F1. This is a medium-hot pepper of medium early ripening period (110-112 days), fruitful, unpretentious.
The plant is powerful, in height - up to 70-80 cm. Fruits are long and narrow pods with a sharp-spicy taste. Fruit mass - about 120 grams, pods are smooth, glossy, black
The value of the hybrid is excellent yield and resistance to bad weather conditions. With proper care, it will bear fruit until the fall. Fruits are great for various marinades, preservation, seasonings.
The mid-ripening variety begins to bear fruit 110-115 days after emergence. The plant is compact, semi-spreading, reaches a height of 70-75 cm. Bully is an undemanding plant when leaving, it is resistant to drought and temperature changes, but it will need a lot of lighting.
Fruits in ripe state have green or red color, conical shape with a sharp proboscis and reach a weight of 20 g. The pulp is juicy, piquant, medium-sharp with a mild aroma and a wall thickness of 2 mm. The variety is characterized by high productivity: 3.5-4 kg of peppers can be harvested per square meter.
Early hybrid Lightning red forms the first fruits as early as 95 days after emergence. The plant is powerful, vigorous, up to 115-120 cm high. Peppers are narrow conical pods with an internal fleshy partition. It is she who gives the pepper a sharpness.
The mass of the Lightning pods is about 100-130 grams. The color during ripening is bright red, in a state of technical ripeness - orange.
The hybrid is characterized by excellent yield, in addition, it is little affected by diseases, resistant to adverse conditions. Hybrid Lightning red does not reduce productivity when grown in open ridges, unpretentious.
This is the most common mid-season hot pepper variety in Ukraine: it takes 112-118 days to the stage of technical maturity, 140 days to the biological one. The bushes are small, semi-spreading with a height of 35-40 cm. Pepper tolerates even the lowest temperatures and is resistant to various viral diseases.
The fruits have a conical elongated shape with a sharp tip and intense red color in ripe form. The length of the fruit ranges from 4-9 cm, and the mass is 10-20 g. The pulp has a pronounced sharp taste, quite dense with thin walls. Pepper gives a yield of 1.5 kg per square meter.
Dragon's tongue refers to varieties with early ripening: 95-105 days pass from the appearance of sprouts to full ripening. The variety is represented by strong sprawling bushes 65-70 cm high, on which the fruits ripen very amicably. The variety is characterized by cold resistance and high immunity to common diseases, therefore it is intended for cultivation in all regions of Russia and is undemanding in care.
Narrow red fruits have a drooping appearance on the bushes and a conical shape with a slightly bent sharp end. The mass of the fruit is 15-25 g, and the length varies from 10 to 10 cm. The pulp is characterized by a very pleasant aroma and strong stinginess. From a square meter of planting, you can collect up to 2 kg of peppers.
Bouquet of the East
To about 60-70 cm, a bush of this hybrid peninsular pepper grows. The bouquet of the East is not only abundant, but also long-lasting fruiting, while its pods are not hot, but pleasantly spicy.
ON A NOTE! To reduce the severity of the fruit, it is recommended to remove seeds and partitions.
The plant has sprawling branches, wrinkled medium-sized leaves. Fruits - pods, elongated, have a conical shape, by weight - up to 60 grams. Pericarpius - up to 4 mm.
Harvest hybrid is grown seedlings, planted in a permanent place only after the establishment of warm weather.
Early ripe variety of hot pepper Lightning white can be grown in shelters, in open ridges. The height of the bush is up to 1.2 meters, the plants are semi-spreading, leafy.
Fruits of an interesting cream color (in biological maturity); during the ripening period, the pods are white in color. Pods weigh about 100-110 grams, the walls are juicy, up to 5 mm thick.
The taste of the fruits of this variety is unusual - sweet, with an admixture of spicy-burning notes. Variety feature: high percentage of sugars.
Ripening time is 105 days, at the same time up to 18-20 fruits are formed on one bush of White Lightning. The pods are suitable for preparing various salads, seasonings, they are good in drying and freezing.
This is a large early variety of hot pepper. The bush is undersized, compact, closed with large leaves. Requires formation and fixation to the support. For planting, seedlings should be used at the age of 60-70 days. It is planted in loose fertile soil according to a 40x50 cm pattern. A maximum of 3-4 plants should be placed on 1 m2. Productivity is about 7 kg / 1 m2.
The fruit is conical, elongated, sunny in color. It is used in home cooking and for pickling. The average weight is 60 g. The surface of the skin is smooth and glossy, the wall thickness is 4 mm. The taste is moderately burning.
Video: Growing and caring for hot peppers in open ground
Those who already have experience in growing hot pepper varieties in central Russia note that most of them feel great in cold climates and are undemanding in care. Fruits can be consumed in all forms: pickle, preserve, freeze, dry and grind. Hot peppers not only give excellent crops, but also look very nice on a personal plot, playing with all the colors of the rainbow and capturing the eyes of neighbors.
Giving a little attention to the plants, providing them with regular watering and sunlight, lovers of spicy dishes will be able to enjoy the results of their work all winter.
Varieties for greenhouses
Some peppers do not tolerate temperature fluctuations. Therefore, they are grown in greenhouses or in hotbeds to obtain a good harvest:
- Shakira Pepper. Strong plant with early ripening, 85 days from planting. Attractive vegetables up to 18 cm long. Dark red and sharp. Pepper loves heat, which is why it is designed for growing in a greenhouse.
- Red fat man, hot pepper, unpretentious care. In its stems and leaves there is bitterness, which is not like insect pests. This is a universal variety related to mid-season crops. The first crop can be harvested after 140 days. The growth of bushes reaches 60 cm.
Attention! You can cultivate hot peppers in pots. The main thing to follow is the simple rules for caring for plants.
Varieties for home growing:
- Pepper finger of Peter. It takes 100 days to get the crop. Plants form a bush up to 120 cm high. Vegetables have a phallic shape up to 16 cm long. Those who like spiciness will like them. A small bush fits perfectly on the balcony in a pot.
- Goldfinger Early ripening vegetables for growing indoors. The plant is decorative. Vegetables are arranged in a bunching way. The growth of the bush is 50 cm. The fruits are conical, arranged vertically. Ripe vegetables acquire a bright yellow color. They tolerate shade, unpretentious in cultivation, have a slightly pungent taste.
- Filius Bleu. A decorative bush will look attractive in a room. A plant with thin curved fruits. Small, about 20 cm high. Its small peppers acquire a purple hue. Gradually ripe vegetables turn red. The plant continuously bears fruit for six months. Maturing term of 80 days.