Zamia (Zamia) is a gymnospermous relic plant belonging to the Zamiev family. The genus consists of 26 species, its homeland is the tropical and subtropical zones of both Americas.
The plant is an evergreen plant with a barrel-shaped, often underground stem and cirrus leaves. The size of the trunk can be very small, only 2-3 cm, like Zamia Karlikova’s or reach several meters, like Zamia Parasitnaya or False parasitic.
The leaves of all representatives of the genus are pinnate, with a smooth petiole on which several thorns can be located. The leaf segments are smooth, dense, oval, with a smooth or serrated edge, at the base are divided into wide and narrow lobes. Depending on the species, the length of the leaves can reach 1 meter.
The reproductive organs of the zamia are similar to cones of conifers, they are called strobiles. It grows very slowly. Previously, Zamioculcas was mistakenly attributed to this genus due to the large similarity of plants.
Types of Loans
Typically, the following species are grown as a houseplant:
- Zamiya False Parasitic can grow on the surface of the soil or as an epiphyte on tree trunks. Its trunk can reach a height of 3 m, and leaves - 2 m in length. Petioles of leaves are covered with thorns, and their segments are narrow and long, up to 40 cm, serrate along the edge.
- Zamia Powdered has an underground repetitive stalk, which in old or indoor plants can look a little out of the ground. The leaves of this species are very beautiful, they are gray-blue, from 50 to 150 cm long, their dense oval segments have distinct veins and are strewn with tiny whitish plates, the young leaves are completely, the old ones are only from the bottom.
- Zamia the Broadleaf has a thick tuberous trunk up to 10 cm, usually located underground. Leaves from 2 to 4 in number are located at the top of the stem and grow up to 1 m in length, leaf segments up to 20 cm long and 5 cm wide.
- Zamia Dwarf It is a medium-sized plant with an underground trunk up to 25 cm long and 2-3 cm thick. The leaves of this species grow from 10 to 50 cm.
Care for the loan
Caring for a loan is simple, but know that it grows very slowly - most often only one new leaf appears in a year.
Temperature and lighting the plant is photophilous, shading is required only in the summer on the southern windows, but it must be accustomed to light gradually. If you put a deputy on the north window, its development will slow down. Considering that it is growing slowly already, it is better to find a more suitable place for it. From time to time, the plant needs to be rotated relative to the light source, since it has the property of reaching out to the sun, which makes the outlet asymmetrical.
In summer, the plant will tolerate the normal temperature in the room without problems, in winter it is better to keep it at 14-17.
Humidity and watering - Between watering, the top layer of the substrate should dry. In winter, the plant is moistened sparingly and carefully, so that the earthen lump does not dry out completely. Make sure that water does not get into the base of the stems - this can cause decay.
The zamia does not need high humidity, but from time to time dust is erased from its leaves with a damp cloth. Spray the plant a couple of times a week to prevent the appearance of a spider mite.
Fertilizer and fertilizing - once in the spring and once in the summer with mineral fertilizer. Zamia, like all cycas, absolutely does not tolerate organic fertilizers.
Soil and transplant - in a pot with a lock, there must be drainage, ready soil for palm trees is suitable for it. The plant is transplanted in spring or summer as needed. Adult plants - no more than once every 4-6 years, and especially large specimens are better not to disturb at all, but only to change the top layer of the earth.
Bloom in indoor conditions does not occur.
Reproduction of the substitute at home is very problematic, since the seeds quickly lose their germination, and it is impossible to grow them on their own.
Immediately after acquiring the seeds, soak them for 12 hours in a thermos with water at a temperature of 30-35 degrees. They are half buried in a mixture of peat and sand and germinated in a warm place under a film or glass, ventilating daily. Seeds germinate for a very long time, from 1 to 3 months. As soon as they germinate them very carefully, in order not to damage the root, they are transplanted into small pots.
Pests, diseases and possible problems
Zamia can be affected by a spider mite and a scab. Treat the plant with an insecticide.
Excess moisture can cause rotting of roots and leaves.
Yellowing and falling of leaves can be caused by insufficient watering.
The color of the leaves fades when the light is too intense in the summer.
If only the lower stipules gradually dry on old leaves, nothing needs to be done - this is a natural process.